Papers - Management of Projects, Programs & Portfolios

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Management of Projects, Programs & Portfolios, Topics:

 - Organizational inputs, methodologies & maturity models

 - Innovation

 - Portfolio management, including selection and initiation

 - Program management

 - Project management

 - Capability Based Planning 

 - Value and Benefits Realization

 - PMOs



Organizational inputs, methodologies & maturity models


A Model for Organizational Project Management and its Validation, 2019, Shankar Sankaran.

It is important that an organization selects the right projects and carefully manages and governs them to deliver their intended benefits. This paper will describe a model for Organizational Project Management (OPM) to help organizations to do that. OPM is the integration of all project management-related activities of an organization linking strategic decisions (where the project management-related activities are to be carried out) with business decisions (portfolio management and benefits realization) with their management (program and project management) and their governance at both the strategic and project levels. This paper will describe a seven-layered model of OPM with its 22 elements – spanning from the organizational level to the individual project level – derived by the authors using academic literature and their own experience in managing projects.
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Successfully Managing Sponsors, 2018, Haydn Thomas. 

The importance of sponsorship to project success is defined and a scoring system proposed.
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Project Controls and the Implications for Enterprise Project Management,  2016, David Hudson.

This presentation discusses the wider implications of project controls in the context of an Enterprise Project Management framework and the overlaps between project controls and organisational project management maturity
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Successful Industry Engagement - the Key to SIC & AIC Success. 2022 Webinar: Mathew Benn

Developing Australia's sovereign industry capability. This  webinar covers:
- What industry needs and wants
- What Defence & Government can do to help
- The current results from industry in relation to SIC and AIC

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USA Program Management Improvement and Accountability Act - What it is, what it does, what it means and possible lessons for Australia,  2017, Lisa Wolf.

This presentation offers some insights into the background to the US Congress passing the Project Management Improvement Accountability Act (PMIAA).  
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2022: Who needs luck? How innovators thrive on risk and opportunity, leading the way to success. Val Jonas. 

For many years, opportunity was regard as the way to cancel out risk - the zero-sum game, that meant there was no need to fund risk mitigation. But thinking has matured to a degree since then. And pundits have long since stopped describing risk and opportunity as simply the flip side of the same coin. Sadly, however, little progress has been made on new, alternative thinking on how to systematically exploit opportunity. Which means that we are missing a trick, ignoring a key tool that could help us achieve our goals: innovation. This presentation takes a practical look at some of the key strategies and tactics you can employ to capture opportunities and tip the odds in your favour. Leading the way to success.

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2020 Webinar: True Innovation is Successful Implementation of Lessons Learned, Chris Carson.

This session provides the detailed roadmap that every Owner and Contractor should follow, and support the map directions with several case studies of actual projects, as well as identification of symptoms that provide key performance indicators to ensure the mapped path is followed.

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Managing Projects for Innovation: A competency perspective, 2018, Bob Wylie.

This paper uses military technological innovation to illustrate how a competence perspective
can inform efforts to improve the capacity of project oriented organisations to handle the
uncertainty that characterises the innovation process. Incorporating innovation-related competencies in project management practice has significant implications for the project management body of knowledge.
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Portfolio management, including selection and initiation

2022: Designing for less complexity. Nitin Thakur. 

Defence has a Force Design function, which, in the centralised strategic centre, is responsible for force structure assessments and force design decisions. Force Design has institutionalised a Defence Capability Assessment Program (DCAP), a process which kicks off by understanding changes to the strategic environment; qualifying and prioritising risks; developing capability investment options with an assessment of their value for money; and building a portfolio that fits within the budget envelope and schedules to deliver against strategic objectives. Defence needs to maintain a competitive edge and meet a wide range of Government-endorsed set of strategic objectives, imposing the need for a portfolio of diverse capability investments. This increases the complexity, and associated risks and costs of delivering on the portfolio. This presentation will attempt to put forward some ideas as to how complexity could be reduced at the design stage while still maintaining the requisite portfolio diversity.

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Enterprise Portfolio Management: What good looks like based on TBH's cross-sector experience. 2021,
Jonathan Jacobs

This presentation aims to provide broad insights into what "good" looks like when developing and implementing an effective enterprise portfolio management solution. In so doing the following aspects will be considered:
-  Understanding organisational, senior executive and stakeholder requirements;
-  Understanding technical and structural requirements;
-  Organisational processes for project and program prioritization including alignment to strategic objectives and benefits alignment and management;
-  Organisational resource and demand management processes; Data quality and integration challenges;
-  Behavioural and process challenges; Risks and opportunities; Project and program assurance mechanisms; and
-  Integrated reporting requirements and systems..
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Strategic management of the Defence S&T Portfolio: Are we there yet?, 2018, Raymond Young.

Case Study: Defence Science & Technology Group. DST Group provides scientific advice and innovative technologies to meet Australia’s Defence and National Security challenges. This paper looks at the next phase of the DSTO migration to an integrated portfolio management system aligned to strategy.
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Right Projects, Right Way, Right Results – A Case Study on Building Project and Portfolio Management Capabilities in the Australian Taxation Office,  2015,  Ms. Belinda Robertson.

The ATO's journey from output to outcomes thinking, including the cultural change within the ATO - moving from uncoordinated, organisational unit focused project demand to a strategically driven portfolio prioritised to deliver business value and the Reinventing the ATO outcomes.  
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Optimize Project Performance with an Enterprise Portfolio Solution, 2018, Saeed Shalbafan with Mario Paglia.

Project-based organisations are able to cope with emerging properties in production and respond
flexibly to changing client needs, but the challenge for project-oriented organisations is, to lead the organisation so that the right projects are carried out, that these projects receive competent project managers and project staff. This paper defines a model for integrated PPM.
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Going the extra mile.....,  2016,  Mr Kim Terrell.

This presentation looks at the department’s approach to programme and project management, focusing on how the department manages its portfolio of programmes and projects in a large, complex and fast moving environment, and the controls and approaches that lead to the successful delivery of new services for Australians. It also covers some of the lessons the department has learned over the past five years in tackling large business and ICT transformational programmes. 
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A NSW Government Project Portfolio Improvement Initiative,  2015,  Valdi Gravitis.

This case study is of a project portfolio improvement initiative, in the then NSW Department of Lands, that used Earned Value Management as a key strategy. 
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Program management

2022: Designing success in a national change program. Phil Rokic.

The John Howard "Seamless National Economy" included several transport reforms. This exploration of the maritime regulation reform will describe the challenges that were faced by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) during this program of change in the years 2011-2015. The aim being to deliver a single national approach to maritime regulation, while also rethinking how previous State laws would transition to a State-based implementation of a national regime.

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A Defence Perspective on Reform and Improving Project Performance,  2017,  CDRE Robert Elliott.

This presentation looks at the role of program sponsorship within the 'one defence' reform program and how the structure of accountability is enhancing program delivery and sustainment. 
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2020 Webinar: Increasing the Probability of Program Success, Glen Aleman. 

This presentation provides a rare opportunity to learn from the latest United States research on the primary causes and contributors to project stress and failure and the latest strategies and tools and techniques which can be implemented to prevent and correct these issues, significantly improving the probability of successful project delivery outcomes.

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Failure of Public Sector Programs: A Framework to Manage Success Criteria,  2017, Peter Slay.

Public sector programs are commonly criticised for having poor outcomes.  One reason may be that such programs have multiple key stakeholders each with differing opinions regarding what would represent a successful outcome. This paper presents a framework to assist project managers to develop a broad-based success criteria review in consultation with key stakeholders and to manage perceptions of program success throughout the implementation period.    
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Project management

Getting to Done (and some Issues along the Way), 2018, Glen Alleman.

The principles, processes, practices, and tools needed to increase the probability of successfully completing your project on‒time, on‒budget, and with the needed capabilities - an overview of the Masterclass.
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Getting to done: the tools and techniques needed to successfully finish a project, 2018 Glen Alleman.

A Masterclass focused on the principles, processes, practices, and tools needed to increase the probability of successfully completing your project on‒time, on‒budget, and with the needed capabilities.
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The Extreme Cost of Technical Debt, 2019, Patrick Weaver. 

Technical debt refers to the costs of having to go back and resolve problems that arise because an earlier decision was made to take an easy option, instead of the best one. Based on two major rail projects in London. The £14.8bn Crossrail project will finish more than 2 years late and 20% over budget. The £ Thameslink project is running to plan and nearing completion. This paper will look at three factors causing the difference:

1. The physical structure of the projects and their relative complexity.
2. The insidious effect of Technical Debt on the delayed opening of Crossrail.
3. The governance factors leading to the 'Crossrial disaster' and how Crossrail messaging largely caused the 'disaster'.

There are powerful lessons to learn particularly when scoping major projects.
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A Framework to Manage Uncertainty in Early Planning of Projects, an ICT Project, 2019, Saeed Shalbafan.

Identifying sources of uncertainty and tailoring decision-making approaches to meet specific contexts, creates opportunities to reduce effort expended in the early planning phases of project planning. Practical application of these approaches in not yet being widely reported in research on Business Case and Decision-making Frameworks, so this paper seeks to fill the gap by describing an approach based on the Cynefin Framework which distinguishes between complicated and complex decision contexts based on the types of operational constraints (governing and enabling) and nature of practices involved (good and emergent), and ensures effective calibration of plans to meet required outcomes.
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Stacking the Odds for Project Success,  2017, Haydn Thomas.

Projects are successful, challenged or failed and dependant on where you are sitting, they can be all three at the same time. As Project Professionals we are constantly striving for that elusive successful project and in this presentation we will discover the thoughts, stages, roles, concerns and tricks/actions that will assist you on the way to Project Immortality.  Learning Objectives

-  Learn why organisations don’t care what role you are playing
-  Pre-Determine the definitions of successful projects
-  Increase your Tool Kit to effect successful and sustainable change

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Best Practices in Capability Delivery - Test and Evaluation,  2015,  Dr Keith Joiner.

The Australian Senate Inquiry into Defence Procurement found that over the decade from 2000 to 2010 that some ten percent of projects by value ($7.6 billion) had failed to deliver the capability sought and that inadequate test and evaluation was a significant factor in the risks not being determined early enough for them to be mitigated. This presentation describes the new T&E policy, gives examples of how and when it has been applied.  Download the presentation


Competing Definitions and Differing Understandings: E-Procurement, A Physicist's Perspective, 2019, Melinda Swift. 

Many authors have examined e-procurement processes and attempted to define their applications within discrete categories and formulate precise definitions. This presentation outlines some problematic issues and addresses some perennial difficulties which inhibit the formulation of a holistic definition of e-procurement and e-commerce and considers the linguistic, temporal, societal, aspirational and philosophical dimensions of the problem in proposing a working solution.  It poses the question "does a reliance on an ill-defined notion of what constitutes procurement and moreover e-procurement promote a false sense of security and/or foreseeable common misunderstandings?"
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Managing Developmental Projects for National Security: A Case Study of Israel’s Arrow Missile Defence Program, 2018, Uzi Rubin.

Following the Iraqi missile attack on Israel during the 1991 Gulf War, the IMoD established a missile defense program office (IMDO) and authorized the development of an early warning/fire control radar. This presentation looks at the challenges of developing the Arrow Missile System.
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The ATO experience and lessons learned from improving project, program and portfolio performance,  2017, Daniel Bamford. 

The ATO perspective on Professor Shergold’s “Learning from failure report …” and the ATO’s experiences and lessons learned from its P3M3 improvement and the Reinventing Tax organisational transformation program.  
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Big or Small: Managing Defence Projects, 2018, AIRCDRE Terry Saunders. 

An overview of the CASG project portfolio and management approaches.
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Capability Based Planning

Capabilities-Based Planning and Defining and Delivering the Minimum Viable Capability in the Shortest Possible Time.  2023, Glen Alleman.

A Capabilities-Based Plan defines the Measures of Effectiveness and Measures of Performance needed to accomplish a Mission or fulfil a strategy. These MOEs and MOPs provide the "assessment" for any technical or operational requirements needed to accomplish the Mission or Strategy. The Minimal Viable Capability (MVC) Strategy defines the Minimal Viable Product (MVP), focused on developing the smallest "feature set" needed to fulfil a Mission or Strategy. The MVP is the foundation of Iterative and Incremental development (IID). After viewing this webinar, you will be equipped with the fundamental knowledge needed to participate in a capabilities-based planning environment.

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Value and Benefits Realization

Realizing benefits form change.  2023, Rasmus Rytter. 

Offers a practical guide to greater value creation. Get inspiration on how to get started with benefits realisation, and a different view on change projects, you will be introduced to a number of key points from the book "Benefits Realisation: The Change-Driven Approach to Project Success. It is a new approach to change projects where you let benefits realisation define the project and its direction and link it to behavioural change – the decisive factor of benefits realisation.

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Benefitting from change management. 2023: Helena Bograd.

A lack of behavioural changes are one of the primary reasons why change projects do not realise their full benefit potential. Still, it is rare to see projects take their point of departure in the people who will be affected by the changes, and often we fail to provide these people with the proper support during the project. This makes it hard for our colleagues, clients, or citizens to change their behaviour, which is a shame, because it means that we will not get the full value out of our projects. If we include change management and behavioural design in our projects then we can elevate the effect of our development initiatives significantly. This presentation will use examples and cases to introduce a structured and practical approach to change.

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Leading Successful Change Projects. 2022, Rasmus Rytter. 

Too often expensive business change and transformation projects only realise a fraction of the expected benefits. Companies might manage to build a new IT system or process, but that is not enough. To be successful employees also have to change their ways of working to avoid ending up with another benefit-free project. The benefits realisation method presented at the event is based on the new book Benefits Realisation: The Change-Driven Approach to Project Success (Wiley 2022). The method shows how to create lasting, real-world impact by helping you to succeed in changing behaviour and creating value. The practical approach to greater value creation. With this new approach to change and transformation projects we let benefits define the project and its direction and link it to behavioural change – the decisive and triggering factor for benefits realisation. The process and the IT system are essential, but they are only part of the means – not the goal. A broader view on change projects The benefits realisation method adds an additional layer to our current technically focused projects. A layer that contains a structured and practical approach to benefits realisation and change. This also means that we, the project managers, program managers and business executives need to change our ways of working. The key to success is to make change as easy as possible. At the event you will get
• An introduction to how to create more value in your projects
• Illustrative case examples that bring the method to life
• Access to cases, tools, templates and videos to get you started.

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Benefits Realisation and Change: Realise your benefit potential by using a structured approach to change. 
2022 Webinar: Rasmus Rytter. 

Rasmus is an author, speaker and renowned expert within benefits realisation and organisational change. His expertise and three books on the subject have helped a wide variety of companies and public organisations realise their benefit potential. Since 2013, he has been part of Implement Consulting Group as a partner, consultant and advisor. Before joining Implement, Rasmus worked for 10 years as a project manager, program manager and people manager. Rasmus has a master's degree from Aarhus University. 

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2022: Making Benefits Realisation A Project Success Criteria – Challenges in Practice. Munir Saeed.
Project success is a perennial topic in the project management (PM) literature, and the concept of project success has been evolving since the 80s. During the last two decades, researchers started calling to designate benefits realizations as one of the determinants of project success criteria. The initial PM literature focused on the triple constraints of cost, time, and specifications as project success criteria (Atkinson 1999, Jha 2011, Lim and Mohammed 1999, Meredith and Mantel 2008, Shenhar et al. (2001). However, during the late 1980s, PM researchers started looking at project success beyond the Iron Triangle. Pinto and Slevin (1987, 1988) published a list of 10 project success factors. Later works introduced the concept of benefits realisation as criteria for real project success (Bradley, 2010). During the last decade, benefits management has received increasing traction from the researchers, and Zwikael and Smyrk (2012, 2019) argued for making project outcomes rather than outputs criteria for project success. Mossalam and Arafa (2016) state that benefits realisation has now become a key factor in project success. There is evidence of growing awareness of benefits realisation among organizations globally, as APMSIG (2009) survey highlights that organizations are seeking to make benefits realisation a determinant of project success. This article discusses the following questions: • Can benefits be included as criteria for project success evaluation and what are the implications for practice? • What is the most appropriate phase/stage of the project life cycle for benefits evaluation and what are the current practices in the Australian Public Sector? • Who is accountable for benefits realisation and how benefits ownership is established in the Australian Public Sector? This article aims to suggest steps to enhance benefits realisation in the public sector so that realising benefits becomes realistic project success criteria and enriches the abstract project management theories by arguing for a practice-led theory.

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Walt Lipke Finalist: The role of benefits owner in effective Benefits Management. 2021, Munir Ahmad Saeed

This paper  looks at the role of the benefits owner in the PM literature, PM methodologies, impressions and observations of the PM practitioners in the PSOs and how this role can enhance benefits realization in the public sector.
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Project Benefits Realization- Academics Aspiration or Practitioners Nightmare, 2019, Saeed Munir.

Project Management (PM) literature increasingly calls for making project outcomes (benefits) rather than outputs as criteria for project success. Our findings show that there is widespread awareness about the significance of BR in the public sector and BR frameworks do exist but rarely used. This research also finds that Project governance does not play effective role in promoting BR. This research highlights the lack of adequate funding, human resources and skills that are haemorrhaging efforts for the implementation of BR. This research also points out that the top management is neither fully committed to the cause of BR nor ready to provide resources and leadership for the implementation of benefits realization in the public sector organizations.
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Implementing Strategy through P3M and Benefits Management:  A Case Study of the Defence Science and Technology Group,  2017,  Dr. Raymond Young.

The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DSTG) is implementing a project, program and portfolio management (P3M) approach for investment prioritisation based on strategic alignment and delivery of benefit (outcome, value or impact) to Defence research goals or needs. As part of this approach, an action-research case study has confirmed that P3M and benefits management are necessarily organisation wide initiatives, but found implementation can be demanding.  Senior management support is important, but the research is a work-in-progress and it is not yet clear what other cultural factors are important.    
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Benefits Linkages - Creating connection between purpose, governance and controls,  2016,  Mark Dickson.

Insights as to why benefits realisation should become a cultural movement within organisations and why linkages to Governance and Controls may hold the key to increasing successful project, program and strategic outcomes based on PMI’s 2016 Global Project Management Survey, the Pulse of the Profession®.  
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Should I buy that Ferrari?  The difficulties of cost-benefit analysis,  2017, Perry Oren.

With a light-hearted example, this presentation illustrates why it is so difficult to determine the value of a project at initiation or determine whether it will be a success, taking the audience through the conception of the project, the analysis of the costs, the estimate of the benefits, and the possible outcomes.  This example explores why standard financial analysis techniques do not always assist us in getting the best outcome from a project investment decsion, and why benefits realisation is often so difficult to accurately forecast.    Download the Presentation


Realising Value from IT Governance: Issues and Solutions,  2017, Amit. Ghidyal.

As part of its Enterprise Information Management (EIM) 2015-2025 Strategy, Defence has embarked on a journey to implement an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. The key challenges with IT governance implementation are the IT risks, which hinder enterprise performance. The strategy for IT Governance through EIM using benefit realisation models is sound at the policy and process level, however, there is a need to build an implementation and evaluation framework to help ensure realisation of the benefits and the vision. This paper presents a practical implementation and evaluation framework for IT governance and benefits realization.  

-  Download the Presentation.  

-  Download Amit's full paper.


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My PMO is smaller than your PMO. 2023, Meri Duncanson.

In large organisations, the value and benefits of project controls and governance is well known. The acceptance and application may differ at various levels of the organisation, however, there is an expectation that planning, analysis and reporting on programs and projects will happen and will assist the organisation in doing the right projects at the right time. Taking the all the useful elements and learnings from the larger organisations and their mature tools, systems, and processes, and using the insights and challenges to design and implement appropriate Program Controls and Governance for small organisations is a challenge but can be extremely rewarding. This presentation will take an entertaining look at the tips and tricks and pitfalls in endeavouring to uplift the capability of smaller organisations. After this presentation you will: • Appreciate the value of governance is important for all organisations, no matter their size • Learn that the most important element of project management and governance is building and maintaining relationships • Discover key tips and tricks you can utilise in your workplace.

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Leadership Perspectives of Project Management. 2021 Webinar, Lisa Mathews.

What leaders need to know to establish a solid and successful PMO from corporate culture, structure and support, to staffing.

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PMOs by Design, 2019, Mark White. 

Project Management Offices come in all shapes and sizes, and in my experience, are often established in a non-deliberate, and misguided manner. Through certain experiences in my career, presented here as two case studies, I describe how I discovered the concept of PMOs by design, and how this discovery ignited my late career entry into academic research which has also added to my knowledge on PMO establishment, improvement and performance measurement. I summarise my findings supported by sharing some of the research I have undertaken in project management education, competencies, knowledge, organisational project management and management theory.
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Governing project / programme / portfolio performance and ROI,  2014,  Harold Petersen.

Designing a blueprint Portfolio, Programme, Project Management Office structure and implementing the blueprint into your organisation, resulting in greater programme, project success and measurable ROI. 
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