Papers - Schedule Development & Control

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Schedule Development & Control Topics:

 - Schedule development

 - Schedule forecasting and control




Schedule development

Publications Provided to Delegates by Mr. Steve Wake

(for personal use only):

-  The Scheduling Maturity Model (APM UK) - Measuring schedule maturity: Download the book



Baked In Optimism – Why so many projects fail. 2023 Webinar, Patrick Weaver.

This webinar looks at two processes that are ‘baked into’ standard project management estimating and control to show how recommended good practices are still optimistically biased.
- When preparing an estimate good practice recommends using Monte Carlo to determine an appropriate contingency and the level of risk to accept. However, the typical range distributions used are biased – they ignore the ‘long tail’.
- When reporting progress, the estimating bias should be identified and rectified to offer a realistic projection of a project outcome. Standard cost and schedule processes typically fail to adequately deal with this challenge meaning the final time and cost overruns are not predicted until late in the project.

This webinar highlights at least some of the causes for these problems. Solving the cultural and management issues is for another time. 

Click through to view the webinar


Why Is My Schedule Slipping - and what can I do about it?  2023, Angela Tuffley.

According to a Gartner Survey (2012) "The single most common reason that projects are considered a failure is because they are substantially late". Two-thirds of the survey respondents consider the challenges of bringing projects in on time, on budget and with the agreed functionality as the primary causes of project failure. Schedule slippage is a symptom of any number of problems or causes occurring on a project. Identifying root causes of schedule slippage is not always easy but is necessary if schedule slippage is to be remedied and managed.

The Schedule Confidence Risk Assessment Methodology (SCRAM) utilises the Root Cause Analysis of Schedule Slippage (RCASS) to identify why project schedules are slipping. Once identified, projects can then mitigate risks and implement corrective actions. This presentation will provide an overview of RCASS with real examples of risks and issues identified in over 50 SCRAM Reviews. After this presentation you will:

• Understand of the Root Cause Analysis of Schedule Slippage (RCASS) methodology

• Be aware of the Schedule Confidence Risk Assessment Methodology (SCRAM)

• Be empowered to develop more robust, risk tolerant schedules.

Download the presentation.


Pull Planning using Project Flow Diagrams. 2023: Wayne Greenwood. 

Pull Planning originated in 1969 in Port of Spain, Trinidad by a young project manager from New Brunswick, Canada. Slow to be recognized, Dean Kyle's creation has gained traction in recent years as an alternative to traditional push planning methods. Using a deliverable breakdown structure, this approach focuses on right-to-left, or 'end-first' planning, which involves starting from the project's deliverables and working in reverse order to identify the necessary steps to achieve them. This presentation will explore the benefits of Pull Planning when combined with Project Flow Diagrams, a powerful tool that combines horizontal Gantt bars and vertical swim lanes on a 3- dimensional time-scaled digital whiteboard.. The technique requires asking the right questions in a specific pattern with integrated bench-testing, enabling the creation of detailed, accurate plans and the identification of multiple critical paths. We are the world's foremost authorities on Pull Planning, having worked with Dean since the 1980s. We will provide two case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of Pull Planning in real-world situations. The 3rd chapter of Bent Flyvbjerg and Dan Gardner's new book, 'How Big Things Get Done' encourages us to 'Think From Right to Left'. Pull Planning, with the right tools and processes takes this to another level: 'Plan from right to left'.

Download the presentation



SEA5000-1 Integrated Master Schedule Case Study.  2022, Ceilidh Armer.

The SEA 5000 Phase 1 Project (Hunter Class Frigate Design and Construction) Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) integrates the BAE Systems Maritime Australia's (BAESMA) Contract Master Schedule (CMS), made up of 26 schedules, with the Commonwealth of Australia (CoA) schedules which do not fall under BAESMA's Hunter Class Frigate Program Head Contract. For example, while the delivery of a weapon system could be delivered by the CoA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), it is still critical to the successful delivery of the SEA5000-1 Project. A particular challenge with the development of the SEA5000-1 IMS is that BAESMA developed and maintained the CMS in Primavera P6 (P6), while the IMS is maintained by the CoA in Open Plan Professional (OPP). Differences in scheduling software between organisations can be a common integration issue amongst organisations participating in major Defence acquisition projects. This presentation highlights the challenges and lessons learned from developing the SEA5000-1 IMS including the: Tools and techniques used to the develop IMS, including the newly developed conversion tool that facilitates and maintains logic level integration between the P6 CMS into the OPP IMS. Benefits of working closely with and maintaining a productive working relationship with the SEA5000-1 Prime Contractor BAESMA.

Download the presentation


Making the Schedule Great Again.  2022, Craig Pope. 

Again In 30 years working in projects there have been many change but some glaringly consistent constants:
- There are not enough good planners and schedulers (and no one seems to be creating new ones anymore).
- The project Schedule is often not used by the Project Manager to manage the project.
- Clear and effective communication is even more important now than ever.
In this presentation I hope to address some of these issues, by sharing my experiences and lessons learned through training people to be great schedulers and planners, who can communicate the schedule effectively to all levels of Project Management.

Download the presentation.


Using Objective Drive Logic to Create Resource Loaded Execution Plans. 2022, Wayne Greenwood.

Every year $billions are lost as a consequence of poor project performance on one basis of calculation the rate of loss is $85,000/seconds! While improvement is obviously needed, most research on improving project performance is focused on improving the execution of the plan. However, project overruns are not always the consequence of a failure of execution, but always involves a failure of planning. Little has been done to improve planning of projects. This presentation introduces an improved process for creating effective project schedules. Object Driven Logic (ODL) is a practical approach to scheduling which focuses on identifying predecessors when planning projects. ODL schedules provides realistic data that compliments project methodologies such as Six Sigma, Agile and PRINCE2, and goes beyond simply spending money to resolves resource conflicts. The case study will show how implementing ODL using user-friendly tools and methods can take the complexity out of project planning, including critical path calculation. Quickly producing the most efficient plan, determining both sequential and parallel dependencies.

Download the presentation


The path from good project scheduling to implementing Advanced Work Packaging. 2021, Chris Carson. 

AWP is a collaborative approach to project delivery, that aligns engineering, procurement, and construction; with a focus on early planning This presentation will offer an overview of Advanced Work Planning and Advanced Work Packaging (AWP) and how these concepts can be used to improve the baseline CPM schedule.
Download the presentation.


An Introduction to Project Scheduling, 2018, Raf Dua. 

This education session covers:
- What is Project Scheduling?
- Scheduling Definitions and Basics
- Scheduling techniques & CPM, and
- Basics of schedule review and analysis.
Download the presentation.


Introduction to Project Scheduling,  2017, Tony Scuteri. 

A schedule is fundamentally the decomposition of a project Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The most widely used scheduling technique is the critical path method (CPM). CPM is mathematical analysis, which can be used on all types of projects that can be represented as a list of activities, each with an estimated duration, single or three-point. In addition, the dependencies between activities need to be defined, as do the resources required to deliver the scope of each activity. Developing and maintaining a schedule throughout the project lifecycle usually involves specific Project Management software, the data managed in the scheduling system is typically integrated with other software tools, examples of which would be an Earned Value system. The session which is educational in nature.  
Download the presentation.


Combining Project Alliancing (PA) and Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM), 2018, Robert Bolton.

A practical look at the opportunities to effectively combine critical chain scheduling with alliance contracting to maximise profits and outcomes for everyone.
Download the presentation


Implications of Location-based Planning for Defence and Government Projects.  2016,  Russell Kenley.

This paper describes a new project management model, the location-work breakdown matrix. It represents a fundamental shift in the way location is handled in project breakdown structures. This can improve efficiency in establishing projects, in scheduling and managing projects and can provide better control and earlier warning of problems in project control. The model has application for all physically located projects.  
Download the presentation.


Project Alliancing and Critical Chain Project Management Methods that INCREASE and ENSURE project collaboration,  2017, Robert Bolton.
CCPM (Critical Chain Project Management) has significantly improved project performance without compromising on scope or quality. However, despite a few successful exceptions, the use of CCPM has not gained much traction in the capex or construction sectors. This presentation suggests that combining CCPM and a Project Alliance offers the industry a powerful approach to improvement. It will show how both methods by themselves have delivered significant benefits to project performance, and in combination, they offer a robust approach to delivering improved ROI for the clients and improved profitability for the supply base and contractors.    
Download the Presentation.


Establish the Project Schedule,  2015,  Patrick Weaver.

Developing an effective schedule is key to effective Earned Value.  This session will look at how to develop a schedule that works covering:
- Planning, strategy and scheduling.
- Planning the schedule development.
- Linking the schedule to the WBS and work packages.
- Rolling Wave - adding detail at the right time.
- Keeping the schedule relevant, its value and its limitations (including the roles of ES, SCRAM and validation tools).  Download the presentation

Mosaic-Logo-Small.jpg For more Scheduling resources see: 



Schedule forecasting and control

Current techniques for multi path analysis of major project schedules. 2023, Drew Nugent.

Why are large schedule delays, which seemingly too often come as "huge surprises" when reported, becoming a feature of major and mega projects? Is the critical path method failing us? Is agile development the solution, maybe hybrid, or what about critical chain as an alternative?

The reality is that all project management methodologies are undermined if the quality and accuracy of the data flowing in and out of the project control system is poor, or not adequately analysed or understood by project controls professionals or not acted upon by project management leaders. Major projects today are certainly exposed to increasing uncertainty, an expanding range of risks and complexity factors, in some cases particularly in Defence related to partially or fully novel designs which extend across the full life cycle from concept development through to warranty. The Government and industry response has included larger project planning teams and larger, more complicated scheduling models. Why then are low probability schedule baselines and inaccurate schedule forecasts still such a common occurrence? 

Download the presentation.


Controlling Projects Without a Critical Path. 2023 Webinar, Patrick Weaver.

This webinar discusses developments in the control of projects that are not suited to traditional Critical Path scheduling (CMP). CPM assumes there is one right way to undertake the work of a project and this can be modelled in a CPM schedule.

However, experience shows there are many types of project where this assumption is simply not correct, including both agile and distributed projects. There is an ongoing level of flexibility in the sequencing of work that can be exploited to the benefit of the project and the client.

This presentation will:

(1) Define the characteristics of projects that are not suited to CPM, including agile, adaptive, and distributed projects.

(2) Briefly outline some of the contractual issues identified by the courts in attempting to apply CPM to this type of project.

(3) Describe an approach for managing this type of project based on agile and lean, while recognizing there are likely to be some mandatory sequences that must be followed.

(4) Suggest a framework for identifying progress and the predicted project completion date based on Earned Schedule concepts.

(5) Suggest a methodology for assessing delay and disruption in this type of project. 

Click through to view the webinar.  


Peer Review of a Schedule, 2018, Raf Dua. 

Management is required to ensure that the project planning and schedule being offered up actually works and actually meets the requirements of the contract and will, in reality, deliver the project.  A Peer review will establish that a methodology and project narratives exist.
Download the presentation.


Peer Reviewing a Project Schedule,  2017, Raf Dua.

Management is required to ensure that the project planning and schedule being offered up actually works and actually meets the requirements of the contract and will, in reality, deliver the project.  A Peer review will establish that a methodology and project narratives exist. Typical Peer Review techniques services include:

-  Schedule consistency with Contractual clauses and any constraints
-  Ensure KPI’s are met
-  Evaluation of project status with relation to the updated schedule
-  Earned Value Analysis
-  Schedule Pull Sessions and crash studies
-  Preparation of schedule narratives
-  Analysis of "what if" scenarios for change order impacts
-  Analysis of likely time extension requests

The presentation will illustrate how this can be achieved:

-  Download Raf's presentation.

-  Download the supporting White Paper.  


An Overview of the Schedule Compliance Risk Assessment Methodology (SCRAM), 2019, Shari Soutberg. 

The Australian Defence Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group (CASG) Schedule Compliance Risk Assessment Methodology (SCRAM) provides a minimally disruptive, independent, non-attributional and non-advocate review process and framework for identifying root causes of schedule slippage and recommendations for going forward to senior and Executive-level management. SCRAM can be used at the commencement of a project to validate a proposal, pre-emptively identify issues and risks, provide assurance, or be used as a diagnostic tool to identify root causes and drivers of schedule slippage.
Download the presentation.


Complex Projects   -  how to reduce the schedule RISK and ensure the desired returns,  2016, Robert Bolton.

Complex projects are now the new normal.  They are big ($500 million plus and over $6 trillion globally).  They have many dependencies, relationships and stakeholders creating a spider web of linkages.  They are generally late.  Often very late. And well over budget. This presentation shows how the CPM & CCPM methods compare.  Discuss the perils of multi-tasking plus explore the risk mitigations tools such as the fever chart.  It also discusses a number of case studies of complex projects in the infrastructure, building and defence industries
Download the presentation.  


The art of predicting project completion. A good baseline schedule is not enough!  2016, Patrick Weaver

A standard CPM schedule is a highly optimistic assessment of the likely project completion date!  This 1-hour practical workshop identified the limitations of a CPM schedule (and why this is a good thing for managing the work).  Plus the steps necessary to move from a standard CPM schedule to a P80 prediction of likely completion based on the GAO guidelines. 
Download the presentation.


Handling Uncertainties and Preparing for the Unexpected in Real-life Project Scheduling, 2018, 
Ripon Kumar Chakrabortty.

Research on resource constrind project scheduling has mostly considered fixed resource capacities and deterministic activity durations. In real-world environments, however, it is impracticable to obtain only deterministic information. This presentation investigates the issues and shows the effectiveness of RCPSP techniques over traditional methods by considering one real-life scheduling problem.
Download the presentation

Mosaic-Logo-Small.jpg For more Scheduling resources see: